What is a Processor in a computer 2023?

Today we will know What is a Processor? and other information related to it. Whenever we talk about a phone or computer, the word processor is definitely heard. A processor is a very important part of a computer, without which it is not possible to do any work on the computer.

Therefore, it is mandatory for every computer to have a processor. This processor is called by many names such as CPU, microprocessor CPU (Central Processing Unit) and Central Processor. CPU is called the brain of the computer because it monitors all the activities happening in the computer.

It handles all the instructions from hardware and software. It is basically an integrated circuitry chip that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive the computer.

It may be a small thing in appearance, but the work done by it is very important. So today I am going to tell you in detail about what the processor is and how it works in this article. So let’s start without any delay.

What is a Processor?

Processor is the brain of any computer. Just as the brain takes all the decisions taken in the human body, in the same way, the processor also decides all the activities within the computer. It monitors and controls all activities.

It is capable of processing trillions of calculations at a time. It performs arithmetical, logical, input/output and other basic instructions passing through the operating system. It is installed in all devices such as mobiles, tablets, PCs and laptops.

A processor is made up of hardware, it delivers all the information that allows your computer to complete all the tasks you request when you open an application or make changes to files. These are also called CPUs.

A CPU is a chip that is mounted on the motherboard. When more data is processed, it starts generating heat. Therefore, it is covered with a heat sink that distributes heat. Along with this, a fan is used. This chip is very fragile, so it is carefully placed in the motherboard. There are many types available such as Intel’s processors i3, i5 and i7.

History of Processors

The world’s first single-chip microprocessor “Intel 4004” was developed by Intel in 1971. It was designed by three engineers of intel company Federico Faggin, Ted Hoff and Stan Mazo. This chip includes all processing functions such as CPU, memory, and input/output control. After this, in 1972, Intel introduced the “8008 Processor”.

Thus, more new processors were introduced later. Over time, with new inventions, the design of computers also changed a lot. Their ability to work increased and the size kept decreasing. In today’s time, Intel has achieved dominance in the processor world. It prepares every type of processor considering the needs of the people.

How does the CPU Work?

Cpu work is defined in three steps.

  • First, the instruction is fetched from memory i.e. fetched.
  • Second, by decoding the instruction, the processor detects what to do.
  • Third, the instruction is executed and the operation is performed.

These three steps are repeated in a cycle that starts again after the CPU takes the next instruction. Here the CPU uses a program counter that monitors which next instruction to take. The program counter acts as a register in a computer processor that holds the location of the instruction executed at the current time.

As soon as the instruction is received, the program counter increases its stored value by 1. After each instruction is received, the program counter moves to the next instruction in a sequence.

There are three main parts of the CPU to complete all these tasks:

  1. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)
  2. Control Unit (CU)
  3. Main memory or primary memory

1. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU)

All types of calculations and comparisons that occur in a computer are performed in ALU. Processing transfers data and instructions in the primary memory to the ALU where processing is done.

The result given by ALU is transferred to primary memory. As soon as the processing is finished, the final result in the primary memory is sent to the output device, such as the printer.

The ALU is designed to perform four basic arithmetic operations. This operation is as follows: add (add), subtract (subtract), multiply (multiply) and divide (part). Apart from this, perform logic operations such as AND, OR, NOT, Less than, Equal to etc.

2. Control Unit (CU)

The control unit has an important role in the CPU. Through this, the input device knows when to put data in the storage unit. Cu also tells what to do after the data comes to ALU. Also the difference between intermediate result and final result is also told by CU.

All this is possible only from the control unit (CU) of the computer system. Through this, program instructions are selected, interpreted and executed in the computer. It is able to direct the entire working system of the computer and follow the commands. The control unit works like a central nervous system for all other parts of the computer.

3. Main Memory or Primary Memory

The function of memory is to store information. Primary memory is extremely fast memory. It stores the programs that have to be executed with data. At the same time, this system also stores the necessary programs of the software, which is necessary to execute the user’s programs.

Primary memory has direct access through the CPU. Here semiconductor memory, such as RAM, etc. is used as primary memory. Its access time is very short, about 50ns (nanoseconds) or even less.


In the coming time, we will see even better processors. Because all the processor designing companies are trying to make processors that use less space and consume less power, so that the computer can be made more fast and efficient.

If you pay attention to the history of the processor, then it is also happening, the processor used in today’s time is faster and more efficient than before. Hopefully in the future we will see processors with even more efficiency.

I hope you liked my article “What is a Processor”. I have tried my best to explain every information related to processor in simple terms so that you do not need to go to any other website regarding this topic. If you liked this information or got to learn something new, please share it on other social media networks like WhatsApp, Facebook, Telegram etc.

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